3-D Point Defect Density Distributions in Thin Film Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Measured by Atom Probe Tomography

Adam Stokes, Mowafak Al-Jassim, David R. Diercks, Brian Egaas, Brian Gorman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus Citations


This paper will discuss the findings of an ordered vacancy compound (OVC) phase that exists deep into the bulk of a high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) absorber that is shown to be a result of many ordered defect pairs of 2VCu + (In,Ga)Cu as determined by atom probe tomography (APT). To date, literature has shown that absorbers grown with the three-step process exhibit the OVC Cu(In,Ga)3Se5 (135 phase) only within the first few nanometers from the CdS/CIGSe interface and at grain boundaries. In this contribution, we have found a small volume (100 nm × 100 nm × 300 nm) of an OVC phase to exist about 400 nm into the absorber. We show through concentration and density profiles that the concentration change from the stoichiometric Cu(In,Ga)Se2 to the OVC is indeed a result of many ordered defect pairs. We use this volume to perform point defect density distributions to give unique insight to the band structure at the nanoscale.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number12445
Pages (from-to)32-37
Number of pages6
JournalActa Materialia
StatePublished - 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Acta Materialia Inc.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-62472


  • Atom probe tomography
  • Ordered vacancy compounds (OVC)
  • Point defect density
  • Thin film photovoltaics
  • Transmission electron microscopy


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