A Case Study to Quantify Variability in Building Load Profiles

Andrew Parker, Sam Moayedi, Kevin James, Dongming Peng, Mahmoud Alahmad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus Citations


Recent technology development and penetration of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), advanced building control systems, and the internet-of-things (IoT) in the built environment are providing detailed information on building operation, performance, and user's comfort and behavior. Building owners can obtain a wide range of energy consumption details at various levels of time granularity to augment their decisions as they manage the building operation and interact with the grid. AMI data are providing a new level of detail and visibility that may enhance building services and assets in the smart grid domain and make buildings inch closer to becoming a grid-interactive energy efficient buildings (GEB). While utility-installed AMI typically records energy consumption at a 15, 30, or 60-minute resolution, building-owner-installed metering can record energy consumption at one-minute or sub-minute time scales, providing information about how much the energy consumption varies from one sub-minute to the other (i.e. variability) at a finer time resolutions than typically available from AMI. This paper examines one-minute building load profile data sets and presents a framework to study, define, extract, quantify and analyze variability in buildings' load profiles. The discussion of variability and its analysis is based on a case study of an actual sub-minute time-resolution data set, collected in 2019, for two buildings in a Midwest state in the USA. The result shows that for the case studies, the level of variability in an end-use category is not simply proportional to its consumption. Furthermore, distinct and predictable daily variability patterns emerge in end-use load categories. This information is useful for a host of applications including prediction, forecasting, and modeling.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)127799-127813
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2013 IEEE.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5500-81073


  • building energy modeling
  • discrete wavelet transform
  • empirical mode decomposition
  • Load profile
  • variability analysis
  • variational mode decomposition


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