A Comprehensive Numerical and Experimental Study for the Passive Thermal Management in Battery Modules and Packs

Jinyong Kim, Chuanbo Yang, Joshua Lamb, Andrew Kurzawski, John Hewson, Loraine Torres-Castro, Anudeep Mallarapu, Shriram Santhanagopalana

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus Citations


Cooling plates in battery packs of electric vehicles play critical roles in passive thermal management systems to reduce risks of catastrophic thermal runaway. In this work, a series of numerical simulations and experiments are carried out to unveil the role of cooling plates (both between cells and a bottom plate parallel to the cell stack) on the thermal behavior of battery modules and packs under nail penetrations. First, we investigated the role of side cooling plates on the thermal runaway propagation mitigation in battery modules (1S3P) and packs (3S3P) by varying the key parameters of the side cooling plates, such as plate thicknesses, thermal contact resistances, and materials. Then, three important factors for passive thermal management systems are identified: (i) thermal mass of side cooling plates, (ii) interfacial thermal contact resistances, and (iii) the effective heat transfer coefficients at exterior surfaces. The roles of bottom cooling plates on thermal runaway propagation mitigation in 1S3P and 1S5P battery modules are numerically investigated by comparing the thermal behavior of the modules with only side cooling plates and with both side and bottom cooling plates.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number110543
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number11
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s). Published on behalf of The Electrochemical Society by IOP Publishing Limited.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5700-84172


  • Battery Fire
  • Battery Thermal Management
  • Battery Thermal Modeling
  • Cascading Failure
  • Heat dissipation
  • Lithium-ion Battery Safety
  • Thermal Runaway


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