A Life Cycle Decarbonization of Modular Building Solutions: Preprint

Noah Klammer, Zoe Kaufman, Ankur Podder, Shanti Pless, David Celano, Stacey Rothgeb

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


Off-site construction methods offer the opportunity to compress costs of net zero energy housing using the advantages of mass production. Blokable, LLC, a vertically integrated modular builder, wanted to know how the learning curves of mass production would help them decarbonize their existing modular housing prototype at a relative cost advantage. The method developed for this question looked at the life cycle assessment of an individual apartment and used learning curve efficiencies to approximate the relative advantage of construction-at-scale. Greenhouse gas emissions were quantified by a learning-affected, whole life carbon emissions model and demonstrated a path to a 60% reduction of whole life CO2-equivalent in the 2030 production year. The resultant roadmap considers a best-first approach to decarbonizing a modular building product line, and the method can be replicated for other modular builders.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages12
StatePublished - 2022
Event2022 Building Performance Analysis Conference and SimBuild - Chicago, Illinois
Duration: 14 Sep 202216 Sep 2022


Conference2022 Building Performance Analysis Conference and SimBuild
CityChicago, Illinois

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5500-83606


  • decarbonization
  • embodied carbon
  • life cycle analysis
  • modular


Dive into the research topics of 'A Life Cycle Decarbonization of Modular Building Solutions: Preprint'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this