A Review of Active Probing-Based System Identification Techniques with Applications in Power Systems

Rahul Chakraborty, Himanshu Jain, Gab-Su Seo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus Citations


System identification is becoming a relevant research area for numerous applications in power grids due to the increasing complexity of the system. A paradigm shift in power system infrastructure driven by renewable energy resources, controllable loads, and new power electronics technologies have given rise to new challenges in power systems operation and control. This increased complexity of power systems and unavailability of physics-based models of most inverter-based resources requires that traditional modeling of power systems approaches be complemented by system identification-based black or grey box modeling techniques. In light of the importance of system identification and little attention paid to the applications of these techniques in transforming power systems, this paper provides a comprehensive review of active probing-based system identification methods in the context of power system applications. It reviews applications of both linear and nonlinear system identification with discussion on their potential and key takeaways. To motivate a further practical use in power systems, the paper provides an example of system identification, to develop a state space model of an unknown plant with step-by-step details. The paper highlights the advantages of using modern power electronics-based sources in the identification process and discusses the emerging research directions for future.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number108008
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier Ltd

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-79841


  • Active probing
  • Distributed energy resources
  • Inverter-based resources
  • Power system identification
  • Transfer function


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