A Review of Cyber-Physical Security for Photovoltaic Systems

Jin Ye, Annarita Giani, Ahmed Elasser, Sudip Mazumder, Chris Farnell, Homer Alan Mantooth, Taesic Kim, Jianzhe Liu, Bo Chen, Gab-Su Seo, Wenzhan Song, Mateo Greidanus, Subham Sahoo, Frede Blaabjerg, Jinan Zhang, Lulu Guo, Bohyun Ahn, Mohammad Shadmand, Nanditha Gajanur, Mohammad Abbaszada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Scopus Citations


In this article, the challenges and a future vision of the cyber-physical security of photovoltaic (PV) systems are discussed from a firmware, network, PV converter controls, and grid security perspective. The vulnerabilities of PV systems are investigated under a variety of cyberattacks, ranging from data integrity attacks to software-based attacks. A success rate metric is designed to evaluate the impact and facilitate decision-making. Model-based and data-driven methods for threat detection and mitigation are summarized. In addition, the blockchain technology that addresses cyberattacks in software and cybernetworks is described. Simulation and experimental results that show the impact of cyberattacks at the converter (device) and grid (system) levels are presented. Finally, potential research opportunities are discussed for next-generation, cybersecure power electronics systems. These opportunities include multiscale controllability, self-/event-triggering control, artificial intelligence/machine learning, hot patching, and online security. As of today, this study will be one of the few comprehensive studies in this emerging and fast-growing area.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)4879-4901
Number of pages23
JournalIEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2013 IEEE.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-80671


  • cyber-physical security
  • Cybersecurity assessment
  • detection and mitigation
  • firmware and network security
  • photovoltaic (PV) converter


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