This report outlines a holistic view of pathways to a sustainable aviation ecosystem, focusing on low-net-carbon aircraft energy carriers (fuels), airport ecosystems (airports and bases), and developments in sustainable aircraft components (aircraft). Taking this holistic ecosystem perspective, we identify critical components that contribute to sustainable energy solutions necessary to achieve deep decarbonization of the aviation industry, as well as the integrated energy system interfaces that must be comprehensively understood, planned for, and realized. Further, we outline necessary R&D needs to achieve sustainability across the aviation ecosystem, including advancing breakthrough innovations to rapidly achieve scalable solutions, with attention to their cross-sectoral dependencies and implications.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages32
StatePublished - 2022

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-6A60-83060


  • airport
  • airport decarbonization
  • airport infrastructure
  • aviation
  • aviation decarbonization
  • aviation efficiency
  • aviation electrification
  • aviation infrastructure
  • aviation roadmap
  • e-fuels
  • eVTOL
  • hydrogen
  • power electronics
  • power to liquid
  • power to liquid fuels
  • SAF
  • sustainable aviation
  • sustainable aviation fuel
  • sustainable aviation roadmap


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