Accelerated Testing and Modeling of Potential-Induced Degradation as a Function of Temperature and Relative Humidity

Peter Hacke, Sergiu Spataru, Kent Terwilliger, Greg Perrin, Stephen Glick, Sarah Kurtz, John Wohlgemuth

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

82 Scopus Citations


An acceleration model based on the Peck equation was applied to power performance of crystalline silicon cell modules as a function of time and of temperature and humidity, which are the two main environmental stress factors that promote potential-induced degradation (PID). This model was derived from module power degradation data obtained semicontinuously and statistically by in-situ dark current-voltage measurements in an environmental chamber. The modeling enables prediction of degradation rates and times as functions of temperature and humidity. Power degradation could be modeled linearly as a function of time to the second power; additionally, we found that the quantity of electric charge transferred from the active cell circuit to ground during the stress test is approximately linear with time. Therefore, the power loss could be linearized as a function of coulombs squared. With this result, we observed that when the module face was completely grounded with a condensed phase conductor, leakage current exceeded the anticipated corresponding degradation rate relative to the other tests performed in damp heat.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number7229241
Pages (from-to)1549-1553
Number of pages5
JournalIEEE Journal of Photovoltaics
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 IEEE.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5J00-64917


  • photovoltaic modules
  • potential-induced degradation
  • silicon
  • solar cells


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