Accounting for Lithium-Ion Battery Degradation in Electric Vehicle Charging Optimization

Kandler Smith, Anderson Hoke, Alexander Brissette, Annabelle Pratt, Dragan Maksimovic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

195 Scopus Citations


This paper presents a method for minimizing the cost of vehicle battery charging given variable electricity costs while also accounting for estimated costs of battery degradation using a simplified lithium-ion battery lifetime model. The simple battery lifetime model, also developed and presented here, estimates both energy capacity fade and power fade and includes effects due to temperature, state of charge profile, and daily depth of discharge. This model has been validated by comparison with a detailed model developed at National Renewable Energy Laboratory, which in turn has been validated through comparison with experimental data. The simple model runs quickly, allowing for iterative numerical minimization of charge cost, implemented on the charger controller. Resulting electric vehicle (EV) charge profiles show a compromise among four trends: 1) charging during low-electricity cost intervals; 2) charging slowly; 3) charging toward the end of the available charge time; and 4) suppression of vehicle-to-grid power exportation. Simulations based on experimental Prius plug-in hybrid EV usage data predict that batteries charged using optimized charging last significantly longer than those charged using typical charging methods, potentially allowing smaller batteries to meet vehicle lifetime requirements. These trends are shown to hold across a wide range of battery sizes and hence are applicable to both EVs and plug-in hybrid EVs.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number6784141
Pages (from-to)691-700
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2014

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-60586


  • Battery chargers
  • battery degradation
  • charge optimization
  • electric vehicles (EVs)
  • lithium-ion (Li-ion)


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