Active Power Controls from Wind Power: Bridging the Gaps

Marc Melaina, Vahan Gevorgian, Paul Fleming, Yingchen Zhang, Mohit Singh, Eduard Muljadi, Jake Aho, Andrew Buckspan, Lucy Pao, Pouyan Pourbeik, Aidan Tuohy, Daniel Brooks, Vikas Singhvi, Navin Bhatt, Andrew Scholbrock, Kara Clark

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


This paper details a comprehensive study undertaken by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Electric Power Research Institute, and the University of Colorado to understand how the contribution of wind power providing active power control (APC) can benefit the total power system economics, increase revenue streams, improve the reliability and security of the power system, and provide superiorand efficient response while reducing any structural and loading impacts that may reduce the life of the wind turbine or its components. The study includes power system simulations, control simulations, and actual field tests using turbines at NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). The study focuses on synthetic inertial control, primary frequency control, and automatic generationcontrol, and analyzes timeframes ranging from milliseconds to minutes to the lifetime of wind turbines, locational scope ranging from components of turbines to large wind plants to entire synchronous interconnections, and additional topics ranging from economics to power system engineering to control design.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages154
StatePublished - 2014

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-5D00-60574


  • active power controls
  • automatic generation control (AGC)
  • National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
  • National Wind Technology Center
  • NREL
  • NWTC
  • primary frequency control
  • synthetic inertial control


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