Active Reconditioning of Retired Lithium-ion Battery Packs from Electric Vehicles for Second Life Applications

Marium Rasheed, Rohail Hassan, Mohamed Kamel, Hongjie Wang, Regan Zane, Shijie Tong, Kandler Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus Citations


Utilizing the remaining capacity in retired lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries from electric vehicles (EVs) for second-life applications has shown economic and environmental benefits. However, achieving homogeneity among the capacities of cells before their second life is critical to exploit the benefits. This article proposes a new active reconditioning approach with the potential to make short-term reconditioning of batteries before second life feasible. A control objective map determines each cell's state-of-charge (SOC) operating window based on its capacity relative to other cells. The SOC reference translates into distinct differential currents through the cells, wherein the higher-capacity cells undergo more frequent and deep charge and discharge cycles than their lower-capacity counterparts. The proposed solution achieves capacity homogeneity within the battery pack with low reconditioning time and minimal fade in the overall pack capacity. The feasibility of the reconditioning approach under varying load and environmental conditions is assessed through simulations, encompassing factors such as the number of cycles per day, depth-of-discharge, battery pack temperature, and cell resting time at different SOCs. The simulation model employs a battery pack with sixteen series-connected 75 Ah Kokam lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) cells with a 3.6% initial capacity imbalance. A reconditioning time of 1.3 months is achieved with a final capacity imbalance of 0.1% and an overall capacity fade of 0.005%, thereby confirming the viability of the reconditioning process. Moreover, experimental validation using eight retired battery cells from a Nissan Leaf demonstrates a substantial decrease in the capacity imbalance of cells from 9.4% to 2.15% within 78 days, effectively affirming the efficacy of the proposed reconditioning scheme.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)388-404
Number of pages17
JournalIEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2024

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5700-88153


  • active battery management system
  • electric vehicle
  • Li-ion battery
  • life balancing
  • reconditioning
  • second life battery


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