Adaptive Primal-Dual Control for Distributed Energy Resource Management: Article No. 121883

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With the increased adoption of distributed energy resources (DERs) in distribution networks, their coordinated control with a DER management system (DERMS) that provides grid services (e.g., voltage regulation, virtual power plant) is becoming more necessary. One particular type of DERMS using primal-dual control has recently been found to be very effective at providing multiple grid services among an aggregation of DERs; however, the main parameter, the primal-dual step size, must be manually tuned for the DERMS to be effective, which can take a considerable amount of engineering time and labor. To this end, we design a simple method that self-tunes the step size(s) and adapts it to changing system conditions. Additionally, it gives the DER management operator the ability to prioritize among possibly competing grid services. We evaluate the automatic tuning method on a simulation model of a real-world feeder in Colorado with data obtained from an electric utility. Through a variety of scenarios, we demonstrate that the DERMS with automatically and adaptively tuned step sizes provides higher-quality grid services than a DERMS with a manually tuned step size.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages16
JournalApplied Energy
StatePublished - 2023

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-83722


  • distributed energy resources
  • distributed energy resources management system
  • primal-dual control
  • real-time optimal power flow
  • virtual power plant
  • voltage regulation


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