Addressing Technical Challenges in 100% Variable Inverter‐Based Renewable Energy Power Systems

Bri-Mathias Hodge, Himanshu Jain, Carlo Brancucci, Gab-Su Seo, Magnus Korpas, Juha Kiviluoma, Hannele Holttinen, James Smith, Antje Orths, Ana Estanqueiro, Lennart Soder, Damian Flynn, Til Vrana, Rick Kenyon, Benjamin Kroposki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

64 Scopus Citations


Rapidly increasing levels of variable inverter-based renewable energy sources (are quickly changing electric power systems and prompting questions about how the systems will be operated when renewable generation becomes the dominant technologies. In this article, we review the status of this shifting paradigm in power systems throughout the world. We then review the implications of this shift, focusing on the rising challenges, and we provide an overview and technology-readiness classifications of some proposed mitigation strategies. Finally, we highlight outstanding questions that will require solutions to reach these ultrahigh shares of variable inverter-based renewable energy sources. This article is categorized under: Wind Power > Systems and Infrastructure Energy Systems Economics > Systems and Infrastructure Energy Infrastructure > Systems and Infrastructure.

Original languageAmerican English
Article numbere376
Number of pages19
JournalWiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Published 2020. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-74429


  • low-inertia grids
  • power systems
  • renewable energy
  • renewables integration


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