Adhesion Strength Study of EVA Encapsulants on Glass Substrates

    Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


    An extensive peel-test study was conducted to investigate the various factors that may affect the adhesion strength of photovoltaic module encapsulants, primarily ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), on glass substrates of various laminates based on a common configuration of glass/encapsulant/backfoil. The results show that 'pure' or 'absolute' adhesion strength of EVA-to-glass was very difficult toobtain because of tensile deformation of the soft, semi-elastic EVA layer upon pulling. A mechanically 'strong enough' backing foil on the EVA was critical to achieving the 'apparent' adhesion strength. Peel test method with a 90-degree-pull yielded similar results to a 180-degree-pull. The 90-degree-pull method better revealed the four stages of delamination failure of the EVA/backfoil layers.The adhesion strength is affected by a number of factors, which include EVA type, formulation, backfoil type and manufacturing source, glass type, and surface priming treatment on the glass surface or on the backfoil. Effects of the glass-cleaning method and surface texture are not obvious. Direct priming treatments used in the work did not improve, or even worsened, the adhesion. Aging of EVAby storage over~5 years reduced notably the adhesion strength. Lower adhesion strengths were observed for the blank (unformulated) EVA and non-EVA copolymers, such as poly(ethylene-co-methacrylate) (PEMA) or poly(ethylene-co-butylacrylate) (PEBA). Their adhesion strengths increased if the copolymers were cross-linked. Transparent fluoropolymer superstrates such as TefzelTM and DureflexTM filmsused for thin-film PV modules showed low adhesion strengths to the EVA at a level of~2 N/mm.
    Original languageAmerican English
    Number of pages7
    StatePublished - 2003
    EventNational Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) and Solar Program Review Meeting - Denver, Colorado
    Duration: 24 Mar 200326 Mar 2003


    ConferenceNational Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) and Solar Program Review Meeting
    CityDenver, Colorado

    NREL Publication Number

    • NREL/CP-520-33558


    • adhesion strength
    • EVA laminates
    • PV modules


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