Advanced Cell-Level Control for Extending Electric Vehicle Battery Pack Lifetime

Kandler Smith, M. Muneeb Ur Rehman, Fan Zhang, Michael Evzelman, Regan Zane, Dragan Maksimovic

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

33 Scopus Citations


A cell-level control approach for electric vehicle battery packs is presented that enhances traditional battery balancing goals to not only provide cell balancing but also achieve significant pack lifetime extension. These goals are achieved by applying a new life-prognostic based control algorithm that biases individual cells differently based on their state of charge, capacity and internal resistance. The proposed life control approach reduces growth in capacity mismatch typically seen in large battery packs over life while optimizing usable energy of the pack. The result is a longer lifetime of the overall pack and a more homogeneous distribution of cell capacities at the end of the first life for vehicle applications. Active cell balancing circuits and associated algorithms are used to accomplish the cell-level life extension objectives. This paper presents details of the cell-level control approach, selection and design of the active balancing system, and low-complexity state-of-charge, capacity, and series-resistance estimation algorithms. A laboratory prototype is used to demonstrate the proposed control approach. The prototype consists of twenty-one 25 Ah Panasonic lithium-Ion NMC battery cells from a commercial electric vehicle and an integrated BMS/DC-DC system that provides 750 W to the vehicle low voltage auxiliary loads.

Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages8
StatePublished - 2016
Event2016 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, ECCE 2016 - Milwaukee, United States
Duration: 18 Sep 201622 Sep 2016


Conference2016 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, ECCE 2016
Country/TerritoryUnited States

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 IEEE.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5400-68303


  • batteries
  • computer architecture
  • electric vehicles
  • microprocessors
  • resistance
  • state of charge


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