Advanced CIGS Photovoltaic Technology: Annual Technical Report--Phase II, 15 November 2002--14 November 2003

    Research output: NRELSubcontract Report


    The objective of this subcontract is to develop and integrate the various pieces of new technology that EPV considers enabling for cost-effective production of CIGS modules. EPV has conducted research to help generate a technology base for production of CIGS PV modules using vacuum deposition of CIGS onto glass. This strategy is consistent with the observation that, despite there being severalapproaches to forming device-quality CIGS, vacuum deposition has maintained the world record for the highest-efficiency CIGS device. A record thin-film solar cell efficiency of 19.2% (with Ni-Al grid and MgF2 ARC) for a 0.41-cm2 device was achieved by NREL in 2003 using vacuum-deposited CIGS. The deposition employed four point sources and detection of the Cu-poor to Cu-rich transition forprocess control. To extend this type of processing to the realm of large-area substrates, EPV developed vacuum equipment designed for heating and coating 0.43-m2 moving substrates, with a projected further scale up to 0.79 m2. The substrates are typically low-cost, soda-lime glass, and the materials are supplied to the moving substrates using novel linear-source technology developed by EPV. Theuse of elemental selenium rather than toxic H2Se gas helps make for a safe manufacturing environment. These choices concerning film deposition, substrates, and source materials help to minimize the processing costs of CIGS.
    Original languageAmerican English
    Number of pages37
    StatePublished - 2004

    Bibliographical note

    Prepared by Energy Photovoltaics, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey

    NREL Publication Number

    • NREL/SR-520-35922


    • CIGS
    • Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS)
    • large-scale process
    • linear-source technology
    • magnetron sputtering
    • manufacturer
    • module reliability
    • process control
    • PV
    • safety
    • soda lime glass (SLG)
    • solar cells
    • thin films
    • vacuum deposition


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