Advances in SnO2 for Efficient and Stable n-i-p Perovskite Solar Cells

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Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) based on the regular n–i–p device architecture have reached above 25% certified efficiency with continuously reported improvements in recent years. A key common factor for these recent breakthroughs is the development of SnO2 as an effective electron transport layer in these devices. In this article, the key advances in SnO2 development are reviewed, including various deposition approaches and surface treatment strategies, to enhance the bulk and interface properties of SnO2 for highly efficient and stable n–i–p PSCs. In addition, the general materials chemistry associated with SnO2 along with the corresponding materials challenges and improvement strategies are discussed, focusing on defects, intrinsic properties, and impact on device characteristics. Finally, some SnO2 implementations related to scalable processes and flexible devices are highlighted, and perspectives on the future development of efficient and stable large-scale perovskite solar modules are also provided.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number2110438
Number of pages20
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number27
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Wiley-VCH GmbH.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-82290


  • electron transport layers
  • perovskite solar cells
  • semiconducting oxide layers
  • SnO


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