An Assessment of Strategies for the Development of Solid-State Adsorbents for Vehicular Hydrogen Storage

Thomas Gennett, Mark Allendorf, Zeric Hulvey, Alauddin Ahmed, Tom Autrey, Jeffrey Camp, Eun Cho, Hiroyasu Furukawa, Maciej Haranczyk, Martin Head-Gordon, Sohee Jeong, Abhi Karkamkar, Di-Jia Liu, Jeffrey Long, Katie Meihaus, Iffat Nayyar, Roman Nazarov, Donald Siegel, Vitalie Stavila, Jeffrey UrbanSrimukh Veccham, Brandon Wood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

186 Scopus Citations


Nanoporous adsorbents are a diverse category of solid-state materials that hold considerable promise for vehicular hydrogen storage. Although impressive storage capacities have been demonstrated for several materials, particularly at cryogenic temperatures, materials meeting all of the targets established by the U.S. Department of Energy have yet to be identified. In this Perspective, we provide an overview of the major known and proposed strategies for hydrogen adsorbents, with the aim of guiding ongoing research as well as future new storage concepts. The discussion of each strategy includes current relevant literature, strengths and weaknesses, and outstanding challenges that preclude implementation. We consider in particular metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), including surface area/volume tailoring, open metal sites, and the binding of multiple H2 molecules to a single metal site. Two related classes of porous framework materials, covalent organic frameworks (COFs) and porous aromatic frameworks (PAFs), are also discussed, as are graphene and graphene oxide and doped porous carbons. We additionally introduce criteria for evaluating the merits of a particular materials design strategy. Computation has become an important tool in the discovery of new storage materials, and a brief introduction to the benefits and limitations of computational predictions of H2 physisorption is therefore presented. Finally, considerations for the synthesis and characterization of hydrogen storage adsorbents are discussed.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)2784-2812
Number of pages29
JournalEnergy and Environmental Science
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2019

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-73671


  • adsorbents
  • binding sites
  • crystalline materials
  • graphene
  • organometallics
  • porous materials


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