An Experimental and Chemical Kinetic Modeling Study of 4-Butoxyheptane Combustion: Article No. 113568

Sean Cooper, Nimal Naser, Tanusree Chatterjee, Yeonjoon Kim, Goutham Kukkadapu, Gina Fioroni, Seonah Kim, Olivier Mathieu, Eric Petersen, William Pitz, Robert McCormick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The combustion kinetics of a novel oxygenated bioblendstock for diesel, 4-butoxyheptane (4-BH), was investigated experimentally using a flow reactor and a heated, high-pressure shock tube. The flow reactor experiments employed oxygen as the oxidizer and helium as the diluent with oxidation conducted at atmospheric pressure and 10 bar for temperatures from 400 to 1000 K at 20-K intervals. The fuel, oxidizer, and diluent flow rates were varied at different temperatures to maintain a constant initial fuel mole fraction of 1000 ppm, with stoichiometric equivalence ratio, and a residence time of 2.0 s. The reacted gas was fed to two separate GC systems that could qualitatively and quantitatively detect product species. Additionally, real fuel-air ignition delay time (IDT) data were collected using a heated, high-pressure shock-tube facility. Fuel lean (..phi.. = 0.5) and stoichiometric (..phi.. = 1.0) mixtures were investigated at 10 atm as well as at 30 atm for the fuel lean case for temperatures between 847 and 1259 K. A detailed chemical kinetics mechanism was developed to model the product distribution from the flow reactor and IDTs from the shock tube. The proposed model was able to predict the double NTC behavior in flow reactor experiments reasonably well. Model predictions at low temperatures were observed to be highly sensitive to the rate constants of ketohydroperoxide (KHP) decomposition in the case of the OOH group in ..alpha.. position which were modeled based on existing literature studies on ethers. It was noted that in the absence of theoretical or experimental studies, the rate constants for KHP decomposition used in the literature were empirically set. Additional studies are required to address the gap in model prediction obtained in this study and to reduce the uncertainty in kinetics models for ether oxidation. Predicted product concentrations and IDTs showed some quantitative agreement with experimental data, but the overall reactivity of the IDTs is underpredicted. Additionally, significant deviation is observed for the IDT results at 10 atm for the stoichiometric case with minor deviations for the other cases. The reaction pathways to the missing products were then further analyzed theoretically through quantum-mechanical calculations.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages13
JournalCombustion and Flame
StatePublished - 2024

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-90472


  • 4-butoxyheptane
  • biodiesel
  • chemical kinetics
  • flow reactor
  • shock tube


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