An Integrated Multi-Time-Scale Modeling for Solar Irradiance Forecasting using Deep Learning: arXiv:1905.02616 [cs.LG]

Sakshi Mishra, Praveen Palanisamy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


For short-term solar irradiance forecasting, the traditional point forecasting methods are rendered less useful due to the non-stationary characteristic of solar power. The amount of operating reserves required to maintain reliable operation of the electric grid rises due to the variability of solar energy. The higher the uncertainty in the generation, the greater the operating-reserve requirements, which translates to an increased cost of operation. In this research work, we propose a unified architecture for multi-time-scale predictions for intra-day solar irradiance forecasting using recurrent neural networks (RNN) and long-short-term memory networks (LSTMs). This paper also lays out a framework for extending this modeling approach to intra-hour forecasting horizons thus, making it a multi-time-horizon forecasting approach, capable of predicting intra-hour as well as intra-day solar irradiance. We develop an end-to-end pipeline to effectuate the proposed architecture. The performance of the prediction model is tested and validated by the methodical implementation. The robustness of the approach is demonstrated with case studies conducted for geographically scattered sites across the United States. The predictions demonstrate that our proposed unified architecture-based approach is effective for multi-time-scale solar forecasts and achieves a lower root-mean-square prediction error when benchmarked against the best-performing methods documented in the literature that use separate models for each time-scale during the day. Our proposed method results in a 71.5% reduction in the mean RMSE averaged across all the test sites compared to the ML-based best-performing method reported in the literature. Additionally, the proposed method enables multi-time-horizon forecasts with real-time inputs, which have a significant potential for practical industry applications in the evolving grid.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages19
StatePublished - 2019

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-7A40-73593


  • deep learning
  • multi-time-scale solar forecasting
  • predictive analytics
  • smart grid


Dive into the research topics of 'An Integrated Multi-Time-Scale Modeling for Solar Irradiance Forecasting using Deep Learning: arXiv:1905.02616 [cs.LG]'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this