An Objective Measure of Interconnection Usage for High Levels of Wind Integration

Michael Milligan, Yoh Yasuda, Emilio Gomez-Lazaro, Hannele Holttinen, Ana Estanqueiro, Junji Kondoh, Antje Orths, Nicolaos Cutululis, J. Smith

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


This paper analyzes selected interconnectors in Europe using several evaluation factors; capacity factor, congested time, and congestion ratio. In a quantitative and objective evaluation, the authors propose to use publically available data on maximum net transmission capacity (NTC) levels during a single year to study congestion rates, realizing that the capacity factor depends upon the chosen capacity of the selected interconnector. This value will be referred to as 'the annual maximum transmission capacity (AMTC)', which gives a transparent and objective evaluation of interconnector usage based on the published grid data. While the method is general, its initial application is motivated by transfer of renewable energy.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages6
StatePublished - 2014
Event13th Wind Integration Workshop - Berlin, Germany
Duration: 11 Nov 201413 Nov 2014


Conference13th Wind Integration Workshop
CityBerlin, Germany

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5D00-67177


  • congestion time
  • duration curve
  • flexibility
  • grid integration
  • interconnector
  • wind power


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