An Operations and Maintenance Roadmap for U.S. Offshore Wind: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

Josh Paquette, Michelle Williams, Ryan Clarke, Michael Devin, Shawn Sheng, Chloe Constant, Caitlyn Clark, Jason Fields, Vahan Gevorgian, Matt Hall, Jason Jonkman, Jon Keller, Amy Robertson, Latha Sethuraman, Jeroen van Dam

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


The United States is currently targeting 30GW of offshore wind to be installed by 2030, and 150GW by 2050. Even considering future turbine sizes, this represents thousands of new turbines installed in a diverse set of environments, each with their unique design, installation, and maintenance challenges. While much can be learned from European and Asian experience with offshore wind over the past two decades, it is important to understand the unique circumstances of the U.S. This document explores operations and maintenance of offshore wind energy, specific to the U.S. and attempts to lay out a roadmap for needed activities to ensure reliability of future installations. The roadmap was informed through dozens of interviews with a wide cross-section of the industry, including representatives from OEMs, owner/operators, service companies, certification agencies, service providers, and researchers. The roadmap first describes the problem by component - blades, drivetrain and nacelle, structures and foundations, and electrical systems - through a look at current practices and opportunities for improvement in the areas of Failure Mode Analysis and Mitigation; Monitoring, Sensing, and Inspection; and Maintenance Execution. Crosscutting areas of Digitalization, Robotics and Automation, Prognostics and Health Management and O&M Optimization, Experimentation and Demonstration, Standardization, and Design Optimization Considering Reliability and O&M are then discussed. Finally, the roadmap summarizes all of these topics with recommendations for short (1-3 years), medium (4-7 years), and long term (8-12 years) activities, with a description of needed public and private sector contributions.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages86
StatePublished - 2024

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-5000-87371

Other Report Number

  • DOE/GO-102024-6297


  • offshore wind
  • operations & maintenance
  • research & development
  • roadmap


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