An Overview of Wind-Energy-Production Prediction Bias, Losses, and Uncertainties

Joseph Lee, M. Fields

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus Citations


The financing of a wind farm directly relates to the preconstruction energy yield assessments which estimate the annual energy production for the farm. The accuracy and the precision of the preconstruction energy estimates can dictate the profitability of the wind project. Historically, the wind industry tended to overpredict the annual energy production of wind farms. Experts have been dedicated to eliminating such prediction errors in the past decade, and recently the reported average energy prediction bias is declining. Herein, we present a literature review of the energy yield assessment errors across the global wind energy industry. We identify a long-term trend of reduction in the overprediction bias, whereas the uncertainty associated with the prediction error is prominent. We also summarize the recent advancements of the wind resource assessment process that justify the bias reduction, including improvements in modeling and measurement techniques. Additionally, because the energy losses and uncertainties substantially influence the prediction error, we document and examine the estimated and observed loss and uncertainty values from the literature, according to the proposed framework in the International Electrotechnical Commission 61400-15 wind resource assessment standard. From our findings, we highlight opportunities for the industry to move forward, such as the validation and reduction of prediction uncertainty and the prevention of energy losses caused by wake effect and environmental events. Overall, this study provides a summary of how the wind energy industry has been quantifying and reducing prediction errors, energy losses, and production uncertainties. Finally, for this work to be as reproducible as possible, we include all of the data used in the analysis in appendices to the article.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)311-365
Number of pages55
JournalWind Energy Science
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

See NREL/JA-5000-75693 for article as published in Wind Energy Science Discussions

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5000-79631


  • literature review
  • prediction bias
  • production
  • wind energy


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