Analysis of Automated Transit Network Systems with Battery-Electric Vehicles in Automated Mobility Districts: Preprint

J. Sam Lott, Stanley Young

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


The paper provides an overview of the insights and findings of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) ongoing research on the implementation of automated mobility districts (AMDs). AMD is a term coined by NREL to describe a geographically defined district or major activity center located in a dense urban setting with mobility applications provided by automated/autonomous vehicle (AV) systems spanning internal circulation and first-mile/last-mile connections to regional transportation hubs. Research over the past five years has focused on understanding the evolution of AMDs, beginning with demonstrations of automated shuttles prior to the pandemic, to more integrated on-demand mobility systems currently in initial stages of deployment. Initial insights and findings from earlier studies include the need for designation of a "jurisdiction having authority," a clear vision of a complete system to provide end-to-end mobility services, and the requisite intelligent infrastructure to complement AV technology. NREL's most recent Phase III research investigates station boarding/alighting (curb) issues, the full electrification of fleets, and the need for a systems engineering methodology (SEM) to properly analyze the complexities resulting from the convergence of automation, on-demand mobility, and electrification of the transit systems within the AMD. The paper reviews the findings of AMD research conducted during Phase I, II, and III, with special emphasis on Phase III results with respect to a descriptive example of the proposed SEM when a "digital twin" analytical model is used to simulate the transport fleet's battery-electric vehicle miles of travel and associated duty cycles through a rigorous analytical assessment with a comprehensive modeling process.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages16
StatePublished - 2024
EventASCE ICTD - Atlanta, GA
Duration: 15 Jun 202418 Jun 2024


ConferenceASCE ICTD
CityAtlanta, GA

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5400-88848


  • automated shuttles
  • automated vehicle districts
  • automated vehicles
  • autonomous vehicles
  • digital twin
  • public mobility
  • public transit


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