Analytical (S)TEM Studies of Defects Associated with PID in Stressed Si PV Modules

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


We report the results of analytical transmission electron microscopy studies of defects associated with potentialinduced degradation (PID) of a laboratory stressed multicrystalline silicon mini-module. Shunt defects were first identified using dark lock in thermography (DLIT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) electron beam induced current (EBIC) imaging. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) crosssection samples were then prepared of selected shunt defects using conventional focused ion beam (FIB) lift out techniques and examined by TEM and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The defects were identified as {111} planar defects and compositional mapping of the defects revealed elevated levels of both Na, expected from previous work, and also surprisingly O at some of the defect cores.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages4
StatePublished - 2018
Event2017 IEEE 44th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC) - Washington, D.C.
Duration: 25 Jun 201730 Jun 2017


Conference2017 IEEE 44th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC)
CityWashington, D.C.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5K00-67822


  • photovoltaic cells
  • potential induced degradation
  • silicon
  • transmission electron microscopy


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