Anomaly Detection and Mitigation for Dynamic Frequency Regulation in Hydropower-Battery Systems: Preprint

Vivek Kumar Singh, Rakib Hossain, Ethan Tucker

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


Hydropower operators and energy storage providers are increasingly interested in participating in frequency regulation services, driven by the incentives offered by independent system operators, such as the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland Interconnection (PJM), in a competitive electricity market. This transition, however, unfolds against the backdrop of a modernizing and rapidly digitizing power grid, exposing the integrated legacy infrastructure and vulnerable communication networks to a multitude of cybersecurity threats. These evolving threats not only endanger grid operations but also have the potential to trigger cascading disruptions across the broader grid network and influence regulation markets. This work presents an approach for developing an anomaly detection and mitigation system to address cybersecurity challenges during the participation of a hydropower-integrated battery energy storage system (BESS) in a frequency regulation market. The applied anomaly detector utilizes machine learning algorithms to provide detailed classification of cyber-physical events and provide a comprehensive situation awareness to grid operators. Later, the applied mitigation system triggers predefined corrective actions to minimize the impact of data integrity attacks on the regulation market and system stability. We evaluated the proposed approach on a fully active BESS topology using the slow regulation signal (Reg A) coming from the PJM market. Our simulation results reveal that the proposed approach performs well in detecting data integrity attacks within the allocated time frame and also minimizes the system's instability and economic loss during the participation of hydropower and BESS in the regulation market.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages8
StatePublished - 2024
Event2024 IEEE PES GENERAL MEETING - Seattle, Washington
Duration: 21 Jul 202425 Jul 2024


CitySeattle, Washington

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5R00-87869


  • battery energy storage system
  • cybersecurity
  • hydropower
  • machine learning
  • regulation market


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