Application of CIS to High-Efficiency PV Module Fabrication: Phase 3 Final Technical Report

Research output: NRELSubcontract Report


During this research period, researchers at International Solar Electric Technology (ISET) concentrated their efforts on three different areas of research. Within the National CIS R&D Team, ISET participated in the 'substrate/Mo interactions' working group and investigated issues such as Na diffusion from the soda-lime glass substrate into the Mo layers and CIS films. Researchers determined thatthe Na content within the Mo layers was not a strong function of the nature of the Mo film. However, they found that diffusion through the Mo layers was a function of the Mo film characteristics as well as a very strong function of the CIS growth process itself. Researchers showed conclusively that the Na resided on the grain boundaries of CIS layers. Another team activity involved evaluation ofCdS-free CIS solar cells. ZnO/CIS junctions prepared by the two-stage process showed light-soaking effects. Cells left under illumination improved in efficiency and were similar to the CdS/CIS junctions. After storage in the dark, however, efficiency deteriorated greatly for the ZnO/CIS device, most of the decline coming from the open-circuit voltage values. Much of the effort during this periodwas spent on developing a low-cost, non-vacuum CIS deposition technique. The method developed involves particulate deposition and formation of precursor layers followed by the conversion of these layers into CIS. Test modules of 40-60 cm2 were adapted to understand the issues involved in this novel technology. At the present time, the submodule efficiencies are 6%-7%. Single-cell efficienciesare in the 10%-13% range.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages24
StatePublished - 1998

Bibliographical note

Work performed by International Solar Electric Technology, Inglewood, California

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/SR-520-25218


  • CIS film deposition
  • photovoltaics (PV)
  • sodium diffusion


Dive into the research topics of 'Application of CIS to High-Efficiency PV Module Fabrication: Phase 3 Final Technical Report'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this