Arbitrage and Capacity Firming in Coordination with Day-Ahead Bidding of a Hybrid PV Plant: Preprint

Xiaoge Huang, Ziang Zhang, Yashen Lin, Yue Chen

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


A hybrid PV plant (HPP) combines a photovoltaic (PV) plant with a battery energy storage system (BESS), which is considered a promising step towards the future of renewable power plants by the U.S. Department of Energy. When the renewable penetration reaches a significant level, a hybrid PV plant can bid in as a controllable thermal plant in the future electricity market. In this study, a bidding and BESS scheduling model is proposed for the HPP. The robust optimization (RO) technique has been utilized to identify the worst-case scenario of uncertainties during the bidding process. To address the overly conservative issue of the single-stage RO, we have decoupled the BESS schedule for arbitrage and PV capacity firming by a two-stage RO formulation. By comparing the output of single-stage RO and two-stage RO, the two-stage RO bids and schedules in a more aggressive manner, which increases the income of HPP. Also, the penalty of under-generation is considered in our model so that the day-ahead bidding decision and arbitrage schedules can be adjusted based on the potential UNDER-GENERATION penalty. Because the proposed model is non-convex and contains multi-stages, the Column-and-Constraint Generation (C&CG) algorithm is applied to the model as the solution. The proposed model has shown better economic performance compared to a state-of-art single-stage bidding method in case studies.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages8
StatePublished - 2022
Event2022 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting - Denver, Colorado
Duration: 17 Jul 202221 Jul 2022


Conference2022 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting
CityDenver, Colorado

Bibliographical note

See NREL/CP-5D00-84960 for paper as published in proceedings

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5D00-82896


  • BESS scheduling
  • bidding model
  • C&CG algorithm
  • hybrid PV plant
  • two-stage robust optimization


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