Area-Scalable Zn2SnO4 Electron Transport Layer for Highly Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Modules

Xuehui Liu, Yi Zhang, Min Chen, Chuanxiao Xiao, Keith Brooks, Jianxing Xia, Xiao-Xin Gao, Hiroyuki Kanda, Sachin Kinge, Abdullah Asiri, Joseph Luther, Yaqing Feng, Paul Dyson, Mohammad Nazeeruddin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus Citations


The development of a scalable chemical bath deposition (CBD) process facilitates the realization of electron-transporting layers (ETLs) for large-area perovskite solar modules (PSMs). Herein, a method to prepare a uniform and scalable thick Zn2SnO4ETL by CBD, which yielded high-performance PSMs, is reported. This Zn2SnO4ETL exhibits excellent electrical properties and enhanced optical transmittance in the visible region. Moreover, the Zn2SnO4ETL influences the perovskite layer formation, yielding enhanced crystallinity, increased grain size, and a smoother surface, thus facilitating electron extraction and collection from the perovskite to the ETL. Zn2SnO4thereby yields PSMs with a remarkable photovoltaic performance, low hysteresis index, and high device reproducibility. The champion PSM exhibited a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 22.59%, being among the highest values published so far. In addition, the CBD Zn2SnO4-based PSMs exhibit high stability, retaining more than 88% of initial efficiency over 1000 h under continuous illumination. This demonstrates that CBD Zn2SnO4is an appropriate ETL for high-efficiency PSMs and a viable new process for their industrialization.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)23297-23306
Number of pages10
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number20
StatePublished - 25 May 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 American Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-81416


  • high efficiency and stability
  • improved crystallization
  • perovskite solar modules
  • thick ZnSnOETL
  • UV filter


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