Arrays to Atoms: The Evolution of Characterization

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

4 Scopus Citations


Characterization is one important component of the photovoltaics research and development effort. It has supported the evolution of the technology, and measurement techniques have evolved in response to the technology's needs. This paper highlights some important evaluation and verification techniques, covering macroscale through microscale characterization methods. Some emphasis is placed upon the nanoscale regime, in which the characterization and processing of semiconductors is leading to areas of atomic engineering of materials.

Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages7
StatePublished - 1993
EventProceedings of the 23rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference - Louisville, KY, USA
Duration: 10 May 199314 May 1993


ConferenceProceedings of the 23rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference
CityLouisville, KY, USA

NREL Publication Number

  • ACNR/CP-16311


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