Arrays to Atoms: The Range, Evolution, and Frontiers of Characterization

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Characterization is one important component in the ensemble of photovoltaics research and development efforts. It has supported the evolution of the technology, and measurement techniques have themselves evolved in response to the technology's needs. This paper highlights some important evaluation and verification techniques, covering macroscale through nanooscale characterization methods. Some emphasis is placed upon the lower spatial resolution regimes, in which the characterization and processing of semiconductors are leading to areas of atomic engineering of materials.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)107-117
Number of pages11
JournalRenewable Energy
Issue number1-4
StatePublished - 1994

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-412-6629


  • characterization
  • measurements
  • microanalysis
  • nanocharacterization
  • performance
  • Photovoltaics


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