Band Diagram and Rate Analysis of Thin Film Spinel LiMn2O4 Formed by Electrochemical Conversion of ALD-Grown MnO

Aaron Holder, Matthias Young, Hans-Dieter Schnabel, Steven George, Charles Musgrave

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36 Scopus Citations


Nanoscale spinel lithium manganese oxide is of interest as a high-rate cathode material for advanced battery technologies among other electrochemical applications. In this work, the synthesis of ultrathin films of spinel lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) between 20 and 200 nm in thickness by room-temperature electrochemical conversion of MnO grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is demonstrated. The charge storage properties of LiMn2O4 thin films in electrolytes containing Li+, Na+, K+, and Mg2+ are investigated. A unified electrochemical band-diagram (UEB) analysis of LiMn2O4 informed by screened hybrid density functional theory calculations is also employed to expand on existing understanding of the underpinnings of charge storage and stability in LiMn2O4. It is shown that the incorporation of Li+ or other cations into the host manganese dioxide spinel structure (..lambda..-MnO2) stabilizes electronic states from the conduction band which align with the known redox potentials of LiMn2O4. Furthermore, the cyclic voltammetry experiments demonstrate that up to 30% of the capacity of LiMn2O4 arises from bulk electronic charge-switching which does not require compensating cation mass transport. The hybrid ALD-electrochemical synthesis, UEB analysis, and unique charge storage mechanism described here provide a fundamental framework to guide the development of future nanoscale electrode materials for ion-incorporation charge storage.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)7895-7907
Number of pages13
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number43
StatePublished - 2016

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-67263


  • atomic layer deposition
  • charge storage mechanism
  • defect theory
  • ion intercalation
  • lithium manganese oxide


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