Bat and Bird Interactions with Offshore Wind Farms

Research output: NRELFact Sheet


This Educational Research Brief summarizes how birds and bats interact with wind turbines and how that relates to potential collision events and behavioral responses, including avoidance. Given the lack of empirical studies quantifying mortality at offshore wind turbines, inference was based on offshore activity patterns of birds and bats, collision risk from land-based wind farms, and mortality data from other offshore structures. In general, birds and bats respond differently to wind turbines and wind energy facilities, with some species of bats showing some level of attraction and some species of birds exhibiting attraction, displacement, or avoidance behaviors. The Brief also reviews how technologies (e.g., radar, thermal cameras) used to study the behavior of birds and bats may help refine monitoring and minimization strategies.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages14
StatePublished - 2022

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/FS-5000-82027


  • bats
  • birds
  • offshore wind energy
  • wind turbines


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