Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance-of-System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems, Using a Bottom-Up Approach and Installer Survey - Second Edition

Research output: NRELTechnical Report

Abstract

This report presents results from the second U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored, bottom-up data-collection and analysis of non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- often referred to as 'business process' or 'soft' costs -- for U.S. residential and commercial photovoltaic (PV) systems. In service to DOE's SunShot Initiative, annual expenditure and labor-hour-productivity data are analyzed tobenchmark 2012 soft costs related to (1) customer acquisition and system design (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII). We also include an in-depth analysis of costs related to financing, overhead, and profit. Soft costs are both a major challenge and a major opportunity for reducing PV system prices and stimulating SunShot-level PV deployment in the United States. The data andanalysis in this series of benchmarking reports are a step toward the more detailed understanding of PV soft costs required to track and accelerate these price reductions.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages51
DOIs
StatePublished - 2013

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-6A20-60412

Keywords

  • balance of systems (BOS)
  • benchmarking
  • BOS costs
  • customer acquisition
  • financing
  • indirect corporate costs
  • inspection
  • interconnection
  • permitting
  • PV system prices
  • soft costs
  • SunShot
  • system design
  • third-party financing
  • third-party-financed

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Benchmarking Non-Hardware Balance-of-System (Soft) Costs for U.S. Photovoltaic Systems, Using a Bottom-Up Approach and Installer Survey - Second Edition'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this