Bifunctional Catalysts for Upgrading of Biomass-Derived Oxygenates: A Review

Jesse Hensley, Allison Robinson, J. Medlin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

387 Scopus Citations

Abstract

Deoxygenation is an important reaction in the conversion of biomass-derived oxygenates to fuels and chemicals. A key route for biomass refining involves the production of pyrolysis oil through rapid heating of the raw biomass feedstock. Pyrolysis oil as produced is highly oxygenated, so the feasibility of this approach depends in large part on the ability to selectively deoxygenate pyrolysis oil components to create a stream of high-value finished products. Identification of catalytic materials that are active and selective for deoxygenation of pyrolysis oil components has therefore represented a major research area. One catalyst is rarely capable of performing the different types of elementary reaction steps required to deoxygenate biomass-derived compounds. For this reason, considerable attention has been placed on bifunctional catalysts, where two different active materials are used to provide catalytic sites for diverse reaction steps. Here, we review recent trends in the development of catalysts, with a focus on catalysts for which a bifunctional effect has been proposed. We summarize recent studies of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of pyrolysis oil and model compounds for a range of materials, including supported metal and bimetallic catalysts as well as transition-metal oxides, sulfides, carbides, nitrides, and phosphides. Particular emphasis is placed on how catalyst structure can be related to performance via molecular-level mechanisms. These studies demonstrate the importance of catalyst bifunctionality, with each class of materials requiring hydrogenation and C-O scission sites to perform HDO at reasonable rates.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)5026-5043
Number of pages18
JournalACS Catalysis
Volume6
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 2016

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5100-67033

Keywords

  • bifunctional
  • bimetallic
  • catalyst
  • hydrodeoxygenation
  • metal-metal oxide
  • tethered bifunctional catalysts

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