Building Demand Flexibility: Grid Service Value of Future Market Entrants

Research output: NRELPresentation


The building sector is an important source of demand-side flexibility that is crucial for renewable energy integration in the future power systems. The grid service value of building flexibility, especially that which provides load shifting, has not been analyzed for the United States. We use a technology-agnostic approach based on detailed grid expansion and production cost modeling results to evaluate the capacity, energy, and ancillary service values of a marginal kilowatt-hour (kWh) of daily, shiftable building flexibility as a presumed market entrant in the 2030 U.S. power systems. We find the monthly mean of building flexibility has a range of 0-38 cents/kWh-day, depending on the original usage hour, month, region, building flexibility parameters, and grid scenario. The daily value consists of the highest-value hour each day across all the scenarios has a range of 0-620 cents/kWh-day. The results are provided in an open database for users to obtain the values of specific technologies based on what services can be provided, when, and in what quantities.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages76
StatePublished - 2020

Publication series

NamePresented at the BTO Sensors and Controls RDO Feedback Industry Workshop, 8 December 2020

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/PR-6A20-78452


  • demand response
  • demand side management
  • power system flexibility
  • renewable integration
  • smart buildings


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