Building Stock Segmentation Cluster Development: Technical Reference Document

Harry Bergmann, Henry Horsey, Hernan Rozenfeld

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


The building stock in the United States (U.S.) varies significantly as a function of several macro variables such as: climate, building type, vintage, and density. These variables change across the U.S. and can also significantly impact energy usage of the individual buildings and overall stock. For example, the square foot density and building type varies by several orders of magnitude from Manhattan to the eastern plains of Colorado. The diversity in energy use of the building stock of different areas of the U.S. is significant, and as a result, analyses that require localized results need to consider the relevant geography and the current makeup of the building stock. This document discusses the development and implementation of a stock clustering algorithm that produces a technically rigorous, consistent, and repeatable collection of geographies which are used as the basis for localized analysis. This framework considers the impact of built environment density, diversity, and climate in creating groupings of counties that create a far more nuanced analysis framework than national averages. Clustering of counties together represents a similarity of building characteristics and climate zone.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages20
StatePublished - 2023

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-5500-84648

Other Report Number

  • DOE/GO-102023-5835


  • building stock
  • climate
  • macro variables
  • vintage


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