Capability-Coordinated Frequency Control Scheme of a Virtual Power Plant with Renewable Energy Sources

Vahan Gevorgian, Jinho Kim, Eduard Muljadi, Manish Mohanpurkar, Yusheng Luo, Rob Hovsapian, Vladimir Koritarov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus Citations


Growing trends in the deployment of inverter-based renewable energy will decrease the inertia and frequency control capability of electric power systems by replacing conventional power plants; thus, the frequency of future power systems might be dynamic. This study proposes a capability-coordinated frequency control (CCFC) scheme of a virtual power plant (VPP) including adjustable-speed pumped storage hydropower (AS-PSH), a wind power plant (WPP), and an energy storage system to support the frequency nadir and reduce the steady-state error of system frequency. The CCFC scheme is based on a hierarchical-control structure in which a CCFC organises the output of local frequency control units. To support the frequency nadir, the CCFC dispatches weighted frequency errors that are proportional to the available headroom of the units; thus, the errors are forwarded separately with a system frequency error to the primary control loop of each unit and thereby arrest the frequency nadir at a higher value than a system without the CCFC. To reduce the steady-state error of the system frequency, the CCFC determines a partial active power command by additionally feeding an integrator of the CCFC with a modified frequency error that depends on the unit with the largest control.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)3642-3648
Number of pages7
JournalIET Generation, Transmission and Distribution
Issue number16
StatePublished - 20 Aug 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 IET Generation, Transmission and Distribution. All rights reserved.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-74860


  • distributed power generation
  • frequency control
  • power generation control
  • power grids
  • pumped-storage power stations


Dive into the research topics of 'Capability-Coordinated Frequency Control Scheme of a Virtual Power Plant with Renewable Energy Sources'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this