Capillary-Enhanced Two-Phase Micro-Cooler Using Copper-Inverse-Opal Wick with Silicon Microchannel Manifold for High-Heat-Flux Cooling Application: Article No. 107592

Heungdong Kwon, Qianying Wu, Daeyoung Kong, Sougata Hazra, Kaiying Jiang, Sreekant Narumanchi, Hyoungsoon Lee, James Palko, Ercan Dede, Mehdi Asheghi, Kenneth Goodson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

In this work, we demonstrate a two-phase capillary-fed boiling micro-cooler that consists of a ~ 25-..mu..m-thick copper inverse opal (CIO) porous wicking structure for high-heat-flux boiling and a silicon 3D-manifold for distributed liquid delivery and vapor extraction across a 0.5 cm x 0.5 cm heated area. At low inlet water mass flow rates of 1.5 to 1.9 g(min)-1, the micro-cooler displays nearly two-phase boiling with exit vapor quality ~ 1 and a high critical heat flux (CHF) of 253 to 320 W cm-2 with low superheat of ~ 10 degrees C resulting in a thermal resistance of boiling ~ 0.025 cm2 degrees C W-1 or heat transfer coefficient of 0.4 MW m-2 degrees C-1. For higher flow rates of 5, 10, and 15 g(min)-1, the micro-cooler exhibits a hybrid single-phase and two-phase cooling regime where the contribution of the sensible heat (single-phase) cooling is linearly added to that of the two-phase cooling. For the highest flow rate of 15 g(min)-1, the CHF is increased to ~ 500 W cm-2 resulting in an overall thermal resistance of ~ 0.18 cm2 degrees C W-1. However, the two-phase heat transfer effectiveness, which estimates the utilization level of the inlet mass flow rate for two-phase boiling, is reduced to ~ 0.11. To achieve the best cooling system performances, the micro-cooler must operate entirely within the two-phase boiling regime (exit vapor quality or two-phase heat transfer effectiveness ~ 1). Ideally, the "coolant" should be delivered near its saturation temperature (~ 100 degrees C for water), which provides significant advantages for the energy-efficient operation of data centers and power electronics. We present detailed analysis with Infrared and high speed camera images at various inlet flow rates and heat fluxes to understand complex heat transfer in the micro-cooler. Furthermore, a conjugate thermofluidic simulation model, which incorporates the physics of capillary-fed boiling in a porous copper layer, agrees well with the experimental data.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer
Volume156
DOIs
StatePublished - 2024

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-88852

Keywords

  • capillary-enhanced boiling
  • energy-efficient cooling
  • porous metal surfaces
  • silicon microchannel manifold
  • thermal management

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