Carbazole-Based Hole-Transport Materials for High-Efficiency and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells

Liguo Gao, Tracy Schloemer, Fei Zhang, Xihan Chen, Chuanxiao Xiao, Kai Zhu, Alan Sellinger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus Citations


As organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) near commercialization, stability challenges during real-world conditions, such as durability at elevated temperatures, still need to be addressed. We have previously reported that doping of triarylamine-based hole-transport layers (HTLs) with a triarylamine-based radical cation salt (EHCz-3EtCz/EH44-ox) leads to enhanced PSC stability at elevated temperatures. While it was shown the radical cation dopant did not need to be identical to the HTL matrix, little was known about dopant exchange to realize the maximum impact on device-level properties (e.g., increase in low intrinsic conductivity, mobility, hydrophobic properties, ease of synthesis, and thermal stability). In this paper, we study the impact of dopant exchange among stable, low-cost, high-glass-transition temperature (Tg), and easily synthesized triarylamine-based HTL and radical triarylamine cation salts as dopants. Using EH44-ox as dopant leads to the improved device-level power conversion efficiency (PCE) for all HTL matrices assessed. Moreover, increasing the number of ethylhexyl chains from one to two per molecule and positioning these chains at the periphery rather than the core resulted in improved hydrophobicity. PSCs based on our HTL formulations have similar power conversion efficiencies (PCE) as those of PSCs based on commercially available HTLs while demonstrating greatly improved device-level stability at elevated temperatures.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)4492-4498
Number of pages7
JournalACS Applied Energy Materials
Issue number5
StatePublished - 26 May 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2020 American Chemical Society.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-76368


  • dopant exchange
  • EH44-ox
  • EtCz-3EHCz
  • hole-transport layers
  • perovskite solar cells


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