Carbon Electrode with Sputtered Au Coating for Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells

S. Vijayaraghavan, Jacob Wall, Wenjun Xiang, Kausar Khawaja, Lin Li, Kai Zhu, Joseph Berry, Feng Yan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus Citations


Halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) represent a low-cost and high-efficiency solar technology. However, most of the highly efficient PSCs need a noble electrode, such as Au, through thermal evaporation. It is reported that a sputtered Au electrode on a PSC could damage the organic hole transport layer (HTL) and the perovskite layer. Here, we report a simple, yet effective sputtered gold nanoparticle decorated carbon electrode to fabricate efficient and stable planar PSCs. The sputtered Au layer on the doctor-bladed coated carbon electrode can be directly applied to the perovskite semicells by mechanical stacking. By optimizing the gold thickness, a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 16.87% was obtained for the composite electrode-based PSC, while the reference device recorded a PCE of 12.38%. The composite electrode-based device demonstrated 96% performance retention after being stored under humid conditions (50-60%) without encapsulation for ∼100 h. This demonstrates a promising pathway toward the commercialization of large-scale manufacturable sputtered electrodes for the PSC solar module.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)15290-15297
Number of pages8
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Chemical Society.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-85907


  • carbon electrode
  • high-Efficieny
  • interfacial engineering
  • perovskite solar cells
  • sputtered gold particles
  • stability


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