Carbon-Free Energy: How Much, How Soon?

Ric O'Connell, Amol Phadke, Michael O'Boyle, Christopher T. Clack, Paul Denholm, Bernhard Ernst

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus Citations


The scientific consensus is that carbon emissions need to reach net zero by 2050 to stabilize a global temperature rise below 2 °C. Many studies have focused on reaching net zero in the power sector by 2050 and have posited the need for clean firm power sources. Resources such as nuclear, fossil generation with carbon capture and sequestration, or other technologies would be needed to complement variable wind and solar generation.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)67-76
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Power and Energy Magazine
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2003-2012 IEEE.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-6A40-80677


  • carbon dioxide
  • emissions
  • Europe
  • global warming
  • low-carbon economy
  • renewable energy sources
  • solar power generation
  • wind
  • wind power generation


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