Carrier Selective, Passivated Contacts for High Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells based on Transparent Conducting Oxides

David L. Young, William Nemeth, Sachit Grover, Andrew Norman, Hao Chih Yuan, Benjamin G. Lee, Vincenzo Lasalvia, Paul Stradins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus Citations


We describe the design, fabrication and results of passivated contacts to n-type silicon utilizing thin SiO2 and transparent conducting oxide layers. High temperature silicon dioxide is grown on both surfaces of an n-type wafer to a thickness <50 A, followed by deposition of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) and a patterned metal contacting layer. As deposited, the thin-film stack has a very high J0,contact, and a non-ohmic, high contact resistance. However, after a forming gas anneal, the passivation quality and the contact resistivity improve significantly. The contacts are characterized by measuring the recombination parameter of the contact (J0,contact) and the specific contact resistivity (ρcontact) using a TLM pattern. The best ITO/SiO2 passivated contact in this study has J0,contact = 92.5 fA/cm2 and ρcontact = 11.5 mOhm-cm2. These values are placed in context with other passivating contacts using an analysis that determines the ultimate efficiency and the optimal area fraction for contacts for a given set of (J0,contact, ρcontact) values. The ITO/SiO2 contacts are found to have a higher J0,contact, but a similar ρcontact compared to the best reported passivated contacts.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)733-740
Number of pages8
JournalEnergy Procedia
StatePublished - 2014
Event4th International Conference on Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics, SiliconPV 2014 - Hertogenbosch, Netherlands
Duration: 25 Mar 201427 Mar 2014

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5J00-61658


  • ITO
  • Passivated contacts
  • Silicon solar cells
  • SiO


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