Catalyst Deactivation and its Mitigation during Catalytic Conversions of Biomass

Fan Lin, Mengze Xu, Karthikeyan Ramasamy, Zhenglong Li, Jordan Klinger, Joshua Schaidle, Huamin Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus Citations


Biofuel or biochemical production from biomass, especially lignocellulosic biomass, is the most promising option to replace fossil-based products to achieve sustainability. However, biomass is currently under-utilized because biomass conversion technologies have faced significant challenges to compete with incumbent petroleum technologies. Advancement in catalysis plays a central role in increasing the readiness of biomass conversion technologies. In this respect, improving catalyst stability is one of the well-known grand challenges for biomass conversion catalysis, which impedes the scaling up and commercialization of many biomass conversion techniques. In comparison to conventional processing of fossil fuels (petroleum, coal, and natural gas), biomass conversion is largely challenged by three unique properties of biomass-derived feedstocks─high water and oxygen content, high contamination by minerals and heteroatoms, and high degree and reactivity of oxygen functionalization─which all cause greater catalyst deactivation in different ways. Therefore, research on catalyst deactivation mitigation and catalyst regeneration is extremely important for the development of biomass conversion technologies. This review aims to highlight studies on catalyst deactivation and mitigation for thermo-catalytic processes in biomass conversion, with emphasis on the deactivation of heterogeneous catalysts caused by the three unique characteristics of biomass-derived feedstocks. This work will provide information on correlating the characteristics of biomass-derived streams, their potential impact on catalyst lifetime, and a potential mitigation approach, which could guide a more rational design of a robust catalyst and processes for biomass conversion.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)13555-13599
Number of pages45
JournalACS Catalysis
Issue number21
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 American Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-2A00-84370


  • biomass conversion
  • catalyst deactivation
  • catalyst regeneration
  • deactivation mitigation
  • Heterogeneous catalysis


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