Challenges and Opportunities for Alternative Fuels in the Maritime Sector

Anthony Foretich, George Zaimes, Troy Hawkins, Emily Newes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Scopus Citations


Amidst a period of historic transformation, the marine shipping sector faces uncertainty regarding its ability to reliably fuel while remaining compliant with new international environmental regulations and targets. Increasingly stringent environmental standards, and heightened regulatory focus on maritime decarbonization are driving infrastructural and technical development for alternative fuels and mixtures, engine concepts, and operating practices. However, the transition to alternative fueling is highly complex and requires both a global outlook that spans diverse stakeholder demographics and coordination with multiple actors across the value chain. To aid stakeholders involved in decision making and research related to the transition, a scoping study was conducted with the goal of outlining the barriers, uncertainties, and possibilities in the short and long term for the transition. Synthesis of these results provides strategic decision support, technical direction, and a set of R&D priorities for maritime stakeholders and the scientific community.

Original languageAmerican English
Article numberArticle No. 100033
Number of pages27
JournalMaritime Transport Research
StatePublished - Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-6A20-78747


  • ammonia
  • bio-oil
  • biocrude
  • biodiesel
  • biofuels
  • fatty-acid methyl esters
  • hydrogen
  • hydrothermal liquefaction
  • hydrotreated vegetable oil
  • life cycle assessment
  • liquefied natural gas
  • liquefied petroleum gas
  • marine distillate oil
  • marine gas oil
  • methanol
  • pyrolysis oil
  • straight vegetable oil


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