Chapter 38: Aerodynamics of Wake Steering

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1 Scopus Citations


This chapter discusses the mechanisms that enable wake steering within a wind farm with a focus on wake steering performed using yaw misaligned turbines as this is the most popular approach to wake steering, although there are others. Wake steering is a type of wind farm control in which wind turbines in a wind farm operate with an intentional yaw misalignment to mitigate the effects of its wake on downstream turbines in order to increase overall combined wind farm energy production. This chapter goes into detail regarding the dominant aerodynamic characteristics that are present when a turbine operates in yaw misaligned conditions and suggests analytical models that can capture these effects. A detailed analysis of large-scale flow structures generated in wind farm control through yaw misalignment is presented. A collection of counterrotating vortices, produced from a misaligned turbine, deforms the shape of the wake and produces asymmetric effects with oppositely signed yaw angles. These vortices generated by an upstream misaligned turbine can also deflect wakes of downstream non-misaligned turbines. This chapter also addresses the importance of modeling these counter-rotating vortices in analytical models for wind farm control design and for accurately quantifying the impacts of wake steering on gains in power production in larger wind farms.

Original languageAmerican English
Title of host publicationHandbook of Wind Energy Aerodynamics
Subtitle of host publicationWith 678 Figures and 33 Tables
EditorsB. Stoevesandt, G. Schepers, P. Fuglsang, Y. Sun
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages25
ISBN (Electronic)9783030313074
ISBN (Print)9783030313067
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2022.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CH-5000-74257


  • Modeling
  • Wake steering
  • Wind farm control


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