Chapter 5: Metamorphic Growth and Multijunction III-V Solar Cells

Myles Steiner, Kevin Schulte, Nasser Karam, Chris Fetzer, Xing-Quan Liu

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) has proved to be the primary materials growth technique for low-cost, high-volume III-V multijunction (MJ) solar cells. This chapter shows the typical applications that drive volume production for MJ solar cells using MOVPE. The two commonly used structures for lattice-mismatched MJ solar cells are the upright metamorphic (UMM) structure and the inverted metamorphic (IMM) structure. The chapter discusses the key aspects of reactor technology pertinent to UMM and IMM solar cell growth. The main commercial low-pressure, As/P MOVPE reactor technology are vertical chambers where wafers are held on a planar rotating graphite susceptor, acting to aid the laminar flow or subplanetary rotation used to planarize the growth. The in situ monitoring becomes a critical component when considering lattice-mismatched growth, in particular the measurement of wafer curvature. One may relate the wafer curvature to the net strain at growth temperature through the use of Stoney's equation.
Original languageAmerican English
Title of host publicationMetalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE): Growth, Materials Properties, and Applications
EditorsS. Irvine, P. Capper
StatePublished - 2019

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CH-5900-70117


  • in situ monitoring
  • inverted metamorphic structure
  • metal organic vapor phase epitaxy
  • metamorphic growth
  • multijunction III-V solar cells
  • reactor technology
  • Stoney's equation
  • upright metamorphic structure
  • vertical chambers


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