Charge Management Optimization for Future TOU Rates

Jiucai Zhang, Tony Markel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus Citations


The effectiveness of future time of use (TOU) rates to enable managed charging depends on the vehicle's flexibility and the benefits to owners. This paper adopts opportunity, delayed, and smart charging methods to quantify these impacts, flexibilities, and benefits. Simulation results show that delayed and smart charging methods can shift most charging events to lower TOU rate periods without compromising the charged energy and individual driver mobility needs.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)521-530
Number of pages10
JournalWorld Electric Vehicle Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2016

Bibliographical note

See NREL/CP-5400-66121 for preprint; this article is available online from the WEVA Journal website;

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-68128


  • Charging
  • EV (electric vehicle)
  • Off-peak
  • Renewable
  • Smart grid


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