Charging Needs for Battery Electric Semi Trucks

Brennan Borlaug, Marcus Alexander, Matteo Muratori

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


Battery-electric vehicles provide a pathway to decarbonize heavy-duty trucking, but the market for electric trucks is nascent, and specific charging requirements remain uncertain. This paper summarizes methods and findings from Charging Needs for Electric Semi-Trailer Trucks [1] wherein we leverage large-scale vehicle telematics data (>205 million miles of driving) to estimate the charging behaviors and infrastructure requirements for U.S. battery-electric semi-trailer trucks within three operating segments: local, regional, and long-haul. We model two types of charging - mid-shift (fast en-route charging) and off-shift (slow depot charging) - and show that off-shift charging at speeds compatible with current light-duty charging infrastructure (i.e., =350 kW) can supply 35% to 77% of total energy demand for local and regional trucks with =300-mile range. Megawatt-level speeds are required for mid-shift charging, which make up 44% to 57% of energy demand for long-haul trucks with =500-mile range. However, the role of off-shift charging increases as the range for battery-electric trucks increases and when off-shift charging is widely available.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages11
StatePublished - 2023
Event36th International Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition (EVS36) - Sacramento, California
Duration: 11 Jun 202314 Jun 2023


Conference36th International Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition (EVS36)
CitySacramento, California

Bibliographical note

Available online from the Electric Drive Transportation Association:

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5400-85691


  • battery
  • BEV
  • electric vehicle supply equipment
  • EVSE
  • freight transport
  • heavy-duty


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