Charging Needs for Electric Semi-Trailer Trucks: Article No. 100038

Brennan Borlaug, Matthew Moniot, Alicia Birky, Marcus Alexander, Matteo Muratori

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Battery-electric vehicles provide a pathway to decarbonize heavy-duty trucking, but the market for heavy-duty battery-electric semi-trailer trucks is nascent, and specific charging requirements remain uncertain. We leverage large-scale vehicle telematics data (>205 million miles of driving) to estimate the charging behaviors and infrastructure requirements for U.S. battery-electric semi-trailer trucks within three operating segments: local, regional, and long-haul. We model two types of charging - mid-shift (fast) and off-shift (slow) - and show that off-shift charging at speeds compatible with current light-duty charging infrastructure (i.e., =350 kW) can supply 35% to 77% of total energy demand for local and regional trucks with =300-mile range. Megawatt-level speeds are required for mid-shift charging, which make up 44% to 57% of energy demand for long-haul trucks with =500-mile range. However, demand shifts from mid-shift to off-shift charging as the range for battery-electric trucks increases and when off-shift charging is widely available. Finally, we observe geographic trends in charging demand, finding that local trucks have greater demand within urban areas, whereas long-haul trucks have more demand along rural interstate corridors. As the range for battery-electric trucks increases, we show that charging demand shifts from rural to urban locations due to observed vehicle dwell tendencies.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages10
JournalRenewable and Sustainable Energy Transition
StatePublished - 2022

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-82100


  • battery
  • charging infrastructure
  • electric vehicle
  • EV
  • EVSE
  • freight
  • HDV
  • heavy-duty vehicles
  • transportation


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